Category Archives: Non Fiction

In Hawthorne’s “The Minister’s Black Veil” (1836) and Carver’s “What We Talk about When We Talk About Love” (1981), both writers implement their genre and style of writing on how the couple in their short fictions interacting and treating their love relationship. It is also depicting how their styles of writing fiction affecting the love relationship between the couples in the story—Mr. Hoper and his fiancée, Elizabeth in Hawthorne’s fiction and Mel McGinnis and his second wife, Teresa in Carver’s fiction. Moreover, it makes the couples in these two different stories having very different characteristics toward his/her own partner caused by two factors: the different genre and style of these two writers and the different cultural-historical background.

In “The Minister’s Black Veil”, Hawthorne presents the female character, Minister Hoper’s wife, Elizabeth, as a disloyal pledged wife when she decided to leave Hooper in his misery in the middle of social exclusion (6). Regarding that this Hawthorne’s fiction is one of the romanticism fictions in that time, the story having a tendency to become a heroic story and it is supported by the endless misery of the main character. Moreover, in order to dramatize the misery of the main character, Hawthorne makes the depiction of Elizabeth as a betrayer and a weak girl. By making that depiction, on the other hand, the reader will have an assumption that the Minister Hooper as a heroic, idealistic and sympathy needed character and made him the victim of his fiancée too.

Her disloyalty and weakness are also presented when Elizabeth is crying after she cannot convince her fiancée to unveil his black veil and then leave him forever (6). It is quite illogical how a minister’s pledged wife just leaves him after only one failure trial of convincing her fiancée. While, as we know that for Christian believers, moreover for a minister like Mr. Hopper, doing such a thing could become a big dishonor but, it seems like it doesn’t becoming a serious problem for them. Even, after that conversation that leads to Elizabeth departure, no one of them is trying to find each other in order to searching for the way out to save their future marriage. This illogical situation, once again, is one of the results from the romanticism influence of this story which more concerning imagination over reason and intuition over the fact (Manggong: 2016) as long as the story can be built as interesting as it can be.

On the other hand, if we analyze from the cultural and historical background, the way they lived their love relationship is quite relevant with the American condition in that time when the toleration was not that popular and having a real impact like it does nowadays. If this story happened in the America lately, Hooper’s choice to wear the black veil over his face would not become that controversial as in 1836. Elizabeth and the other townspeople would not exclude him with his progressive views that actually could not fit with the American values in those years. It is also relevant to Randa G. Keeley argument which is written on her thesis “Merging The Public And Private Spheres: The Representation Of Gender In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown”,”The Minister’s Black Veil,” And “The Birth-Mark”:

“This fits in with what has already been stated in this paper in regard to humiliation, because it seems that Hooper is unable to convince the remaining townspeople of his progressive views. Consequently, he has been embarrassed in his profession because he is an unsuccessful minister, but even more he is unsuccessful in relationships as well against mid-nineteenth-century standards.” (Keeley: 42-43)

Besides the toleration issue, another cultural background which is affected this couple’s love relationship in this story is the feminism. In 1836, the American woman emancipation movement had a big impact on the American society that time in spite of the fact that the movement is not as massive as the first wave of the United States feminism movement, twelve years later in 1848. The majority of Americans who joined the antislavery and woman’s rights causes in the 1830s—in many cases the same individuals—came usually from deeply religious, reform-oriented families. That historical fact supported the theory that Hawthorne’s depict the couple, Father Hooper and Elizabeth as the feminist that is indicated by their deeply religious background, especially, Father Hooper as a progressive-viewed minister.

On the other hand, we may have an assumption that the male-centric and male-domination issues of this story affect the couple, but actually, it is only caused by the heroism of the male main character, Mr. Hooper. More than that, Hawthorne also implied the other feminism implementation on Mr. Hooper – Elizabeth love relationship like the other romanticism fiction that is having some implicit symbols. This Hawthorne style of writing also supported by the argument of Randa G. Keeley who wrote the thesis about three Hawthorne’s short stories and one of them is The Minister’s Black Veil. She argues in her thesis:

“The men in Hawthorne’s stories are governed by their egos and as a result are unable to leave behind contemporary mid-nineteenth-century values that stand in their way of establishing a more progressive society. Likewise, each story depicts female characters that are malleable and easily adjust to the changes in society. Therefore, Hawthorne seems to favor women in his stories, and more specifically their gendered character, over the men.” (Keeley: 65)

While in “What We Talk about When We Talk about Love”, we can see a whole big different type of lover couple from the previous couple in “The Minister’s Black Veil” short story. The different is caused by the two factors that were mentioned before: the different genre of these two short stories and also the cultural and historical background difference. Like Hawthorne’s “Minister Black Veil”, this Carver’s fiction also depicting the couple as the part of the genre, style, and cultural and historical background representation.

In the Carver’s fiction, actually, there are five couples that involved in the story. They are Mel McGinnis and his second wife, Terri; Nick the narrator and his, wife Laura; Teri and his former boyfriend, Ed; Mel and his former wife, Marjorie; and the old couple who became Mel’s patients. From all those five couples, Mel McGinnis and his second wife, Terri is the most dominant couple character in this short story and could be analyzed deeper than the other couples. They become the most dominant couple is caused by the genre of this short story, the contemporary genre which doesn’t have any heroic or anti-heroic character like the Minister’s Black Veil has. Because of it, the focus of the story would be topic-centric rather than a certain-character-centric. As the result, Mel McGinnis and Terri having the largest portion to affect the story because they are more experienced on the topic of the story, which is love, rather than Nick and Laura—in spite of Nick himself is the narrator of the story.

On the other hand, Mel and Terri love relationship, analyzed from the genre of the story, is far more realistic than the Mr. Hooper and Elizabeth love relationship. Despite that he is considered as the contemporary fiction writer, Carver included some realism value in some of his works that make the story become more realistic rather than blurring the lines of reality and mixing the fantasy and nonfiction like the common contemporary works. That argument is relevant to Brian Charles Seemann’s argument in his Thesis:

“Carvers status in American literature comes from the credit he receives for rejuvenating the short story in the latter part of the twentieth century alongside other writers admired for their realistic viewpoints and the inclination to capture an arresting essence of life drawn from classic realism.” (Seemann: 1)

Carver’s style of writing that influenced by classic realism made the couple in the short story seems to be more faithful and tolerance to each other. Different from Elizabeth and Hooper, Mel and Terri represented the common couple in the real life. Like the other realism fiction, the story is told like it was, focus on lives of ordinary people and rejected heroic and adventurous (Manggong, 2016). In this story, even Mel and Terri having so many disagreements, they still love each other because the high toleration like the other American people nowadays. In so many occasions, Mel argued his wife, but after that, immediately he shows his affection towards her:

“Honey, I’m just talking.” Mel said. “All right? I don’t have to be drunk to say what I think. I mean, we’re all just talking, right?” Mel said. He fixed his eyes on her.

“Sweetie, I’m not criticizing,” Terri said.” (4)

But actually, that is the reality and the common sense of love when someone would not stop to love his partner because of one clash in an occasion. Oppositely from the unrealistic relationship of Hooper and Elizabeth, Mel and Terri having the tendency to be more tolerant and more forgivable to each other.

Related to the historical and cultural background, Carver presented Terri as someone who has a big impact on her relationship. Relevance to the rise of woman’s right by time to time until nowadays on the top of the amount of existence, on this Carver’s fiction, a woman is depicted far more independent and stronger than the depiction of Elizabeth in Hawthorne’s “The Minister’s Black Veil”. Seemann in his argument in his thesis that supported the theory of feminism in the Carver’s fiction:

“Characters react to conflict and despair in an assortment of ways, but one identifiable trait in many stories throughout each collection is the determination and intuitiveness of women … feminine impact evolves throughout Carver’s work, and looking at these women creates a better awareness of the effect gender has in Carver’s stories” (Seemann: 3)

Terri depicted as someone who can keep her point of view, nonetheless of her husband disagreement when they are talking about love. She also in several occasions, is depicted stronger and more mature than her husband, mainly while they are drunk. While Mel is getting drunker that caused the cursing and digressing while he talked, Terri seems to be having more control to her consciences, even she is trying to take care of her husband, yet she is in the middle of drinking the alcohol too.

As the conclusion, by comparing both short stories, Hawthorne’s “The Minister’s Black Veil” and Carver’s “What We Talk about When We Talk about Love”, firstly, we can conclude that two contradictive genres of these two short stories—romanticism and contemporary-classical realism, making the characteristics of the couple toward his/her own partner are different. As the result, the couple characteristic in the Carver’s short story is far more common and make-sense than the couple in the Hawthorne’s short story. Secondly, the two massive different historical and cultural backgrounds also affected how the couples’ characteristics are built. Considering that Hawthorne’s “The Minister’s Black Veil” is written in 1836 while Carver’s “What We Talk about When We Talk About Love” is written in 1981, makes each of the stories have the different American society value—especially related to feminism and toleration issues. Even in the early nineteenth century, the period when Hawthorne’s “The Minister’s Black Veil” is written, some of feminism and toleration movement is promoted and having the real impact on the American society, the period when Carver’s fiction is written is even giving the feminism and toleration movement at their best that never reached before. It makes the female in the couple, Terri in Carver’s fiction having a big influence in her relationship unlike Elizabeth in Hawthorne’s “The Minister’s Black Veil”.



Carver, Raymond. What We Talk About When We Talk About Love. 1981. New York: Vintage Contemporaries, 1982.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. “The Minister’s Black Veil.” Comp. Roy Harvey Pearce.                Nathaniel Hawthorne:Tales and Sketches. New York: NY: The Library of        America, 1996.

Keeley, Randa G. “Merging the Public and Private Spheres: The Representation    of Gender in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown,” “The                         Minister’s Black Veil,” and “The Birth-Mark”.” Order No. 1499030 Texas             A&M University – Commerce, 2008. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 21 June         2016.

Lestari Manggong. “Week 1, Literature in America: Nineteenth Century to Contemporary Period.” American Literature Lecture. Universitas    Padjajaran, Jatinangor. 2016. Lecture.

Seemann, Brian Charles. “”what is it?”: Exploring the Roles of Women        Throughout Raymond Carver’s Short Fiction.” Order No. 1439078 Wichita             State University, 2006. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 21 June 2016.



The Lazy Song: The Anthem of our (Procrastination) Generation

When the laziness does come to you, whether you want to fight it or accept it, music has always a big impact for you to support your decision.

Well, congratulation if you are the one who choose to fight the laziness every time it comes to you. There are so many songs that you can listen to avert the possibility of you become a procrastinator.

But oppositely, if you’re on the way to accept that you’re a part of this procrastinated generation, don’t be so guilty for it. A recent study from the University of Carleton found that if you forgive yourself for procrastinating, chances are you will procrastinate less on the next task at hand.

But, how we could apologize for being a procrastinator? perhaps the answer is to realizing that there is a song about procrastinating–consisted with every procrastination and laziness element in it, could be one of the best-selling digital singles of 2011 and with sales of 6.5 million copies.

And this song also definitely having a cure for your guilty feeling.

The Lazy Song by Bruno Mars consists all the procrastination element in both lyric and music arrangement. Even the process of making “The Lazy Song” began while Bruno Mars, Philip Lawrence, and Ari Levine were hanging around the studio and didn’t feel like working. It makes this song just very frank lyrically and musically due to the real feeling they had on that time.
Musical Arrangement and Video.

The song’s musically light and simple and having so much reggae beat influence. This song’s filled by massive ukulele guitar and electronic sound beat. It just gives procrastination at its best.

While the music video is also describing how hard and bad procrastination disease that Mars’ has. The video only took one continuously shoot from one camera’s angle and took place in a messy bedroom. Perhaps, the only thing who needs so much effort for making this music video is to train a group of chimps how to dance hip-hop collectively.
Lyric of the song

The conspicuous and to-the-point lyric is written by Bruno Mars as he impressed that being lazy in a whole day is not a bold wicked sin (except when you’re on the deadline day for the final examination). He gave us another perception about being lazy when he told in this song that it’s okay for doing nothing a whole day just when you felt that you want to, not because you have possible time for doing nothing.

This song’s also represented some college student procrastinators (like all of us(?)) in the second verse of the song. It indicates that doing procrastination is even worth even you have to delay getting your college degree and make your father wait for not uncertain time. But please, do consider the relative scale of calmness that a father has!
Remember, use this procrastinator anthem just to make you less guilty by knowing that procrastination has normally happened to many youngsters like us rather than you make this laziness anthem as the reason you don’t change your habit.

And if the recent study from the University of Carleton above about forgiving our procrastination habit doesn’t work, at least you should become the most creative procrastinator like Bruno Mars did.



[Research Finding] College Music Festival: Another Perspective

“A Physics Major Student Found a New Physics Theory of Gravity while Organizing a Reggae Music Festival!”

“A Medical Student Found a Special Chemical for Human Immortality after Presenting a Success Music Concert”

Said no journalist on the headline of any newspaper, ever.

Well, some students tend to be so sarcastic and cynic when we talk about college music festival. Well, it is reasonable because there is a tendency that some Unpad student held a music event that doesn’t have any relation with their major and also not relevant to their status as college students.

And on the other hand, we should realize that the student has a freedom to make their own movement–not always a movement related to their specific major only, it could be music or the other kind of art. And I also realize that the one who could possibly make music as a media is not the student of the music major only.

Nowadays, student’s music festival becomes so much popular, especially among Unpad student. With so many different concepts and contents, each student organization and community tries to hold the most beneficial and popular music concert or festival around the campus.

Some students think that organizing music event should not become our big concern because it does not have relation with our responsibility as a college student. They don’t see a necessity for students who organizing a music festival. But actually, there are so many important things for us as a student to hold a music festival, but of course, a festival that is relevant for us as a college student.

However, regarding our status as a student, does it still make a right thing for us to give a massive concern to organize a music event? And how can be this music festival having the same values with the Tridharma Perguruan Tinggi* as our indicator as a college student?

Since a music become a big industry which has so many people that included in it, we should use this most popular art as a media to promote and campaign social issues. According to the third Tridharama Perguruan Tinggi, i.e Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, if we use the music festival as a media to promote a good movement, we can also make a big impact on society.

Just like the Unpad FISIP Folk Fest did, the committee made the music festival to promote traditional culture. They showed that traditional cultures such as the traditional dance, music instrument, and children’s games were also quite interesting and valuable if it was presented as professional as they can. They’ve been successfully sending their message to many students who attended the festival that our traditional culture could possibly compete with the other popular culture.

Besides using the music as a media to promote a movement, music can also become a fundraising or even, some festival music share their profit for the charity.

One of them is LIGHT 2016, a music festival held by Industrial Engineering Unpar student. This Music festival gave their profit to Panti Sosial Bina Netra Wiyata Guna. Moreover, it is not only about the money, even before the main guest star, Raisa, performed, they also gave a chance for Wiyata Guna’s Band to performed first. It showed so much respect for them and also helping them had more confident in their real life. This kind of music festival is not only supporting the unlucky one but also giving so much real life-lesson for us as a college student about sharing.

Screen Shot 2016-05-22 at 21.55.41.png

Moreover, based on my survey concerning the student’s music festival, most of the student agrees that student music festival is important. From 122 students who taking the survey, 60,7% voters agree that student music festival is important, 22% agree that it is not important, and 14,6% voters agree that it is very important.

Screen Shot 2016-05-22 at 21.56.06The other statistic in my survey also showed that most of the student agree that Student music festival should not be just a ‘music festival’. It should have some social issues or the charity event so the music festival could be something relevant to our status as the college student. The last data showed that an ideal music festival for the student is a music festival that is useful for the society. This data showed that most of the student having a relevant concept about what music festival is.

So, for the conclusion, the student music festival is a very important thing to concern by the college student. Even though, some students think that organizing a music festival is unimportant and irrelevant for us as the college students. That kind of opinion is caused by their view that only sees the music festival as the music concert only.

More than that, there are so many positive things in it if only the music festival itself could be the media to promote or campaign a social movement or become the fundraising for the needy. If we do those things well, the student music festival would be something that relevant to our status as the college student and to the Tridharma Perguruan Tinggi.

If Einstein were still alive, perhaps Einstein would agree with the idea of making music as a media to promote his special relativity theory to make more people understand what he means. And if Giordano Bruno** were still alive too, I’d rather believe that he would support the Heliocentric theory by presented a rock music concert with a tagline “Rock Orbiting the Sun, and We Earth*** the Rock”. There would be a big chance that he would not burn to death–like what happened to him before because there would be so many rock fans and musician who would stand by his side.


* Tridharma Perguruan Tinggi: Pendidikan (Education); Penelitian (Research); and Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (Social Dedication).

** Giordano Bruno supported the Copernican view – the view that the earth orbits the sun, and that the earth is not the center of the universe. Eventually, the Pope decided that Bruno was a heretic, with the result that he was burned at the stake in Rome.

*** ‘Earth’ means ‘Are’ too in the tagline.


  1. “In Defense of Being Average” by Mark Manson
  2. The Statistics data from my survey via Google Form. link:

Final Paper Introduction to Prose – A Same Pattern between Character and Setting in two Hemingway’s Stories

                                                                                                     Riva Perdana Sidi


January 7, 2015


A Same Pattern between Character and Setting in two Hemingway’s Stories.


Setting in a story has the main function in order to describe the readers what’s look like the story takes place and when the story happened. Even though, some authors just in the natures of Ernest Hemingway also use the setting as the component which has so many relation with the certain character. This condition will bring out an unconscious harmony to the readers of the short story, mainly the lay readers. Moreover, we can also see that in his two short stories, “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” and “Old Man at the Bridge”, there are two repeated pattern that related with setting and character.

The first similarity pattern in these two short stories is the way Hemingway using uncommon setting for unusual and strange person, the Old Man. Hemingway was trying to create a kind of harmony by pairing the character and the setting which has so many same characteristic. Actually, we can also see that it is not only the Old Man who lived in that unusual place. Unconsciously, the character who criticize and can’t understand why the Old Man choose that uncommon place to stay, actually, also stay in that place which become the second similarity pattern in these two short stories. This second pattern also related with the character’s status, the one who had the job would criticize the character who had not a job even, they are in the same or even in the worse condition unconsciously.

The first pattern, using uncommon setting for unusual and strange person, in Hemingway’s “Old Man at the Bridge’’ is happened in a moment when an Old man sat at the bridge. A place that linked two places, but in the even that we take another perception, actually, bridge is not a place but just an intersection between the two places. It such a rare thing if someone stayed for quite long time there while common people just walk and cross it. In the nature of the bridge is, the character in Ernest Hemingway’s “Old Man at the Bridge’s”, which is the Old Man, also has some same characteristics with the bridge’s are and this thing makes a kind of harmony in this story. The Old Man was completely has no direction, principle and lost nowhere just like the bridge. It also implied when “I” in this story asked in regards to what politic he has, he answered that he has no politics (Hemmingway 61). Just like the bridge, the old man was in the intersection, in the middle of two choices but he didn’t choose anything and just sat down at the bridge and still lost and has no principle. If we see in another point, we can also see that the people around the Old man just walked over the bridge but nobody stay there. They did it because they are not lost people and have direction where they want to go. Some of them still have a family or someone who wants they meet and it makes them moving on to the other places.

That pattern was repeated by Hemmingway in “Clean, Well lighted place” in the moment when the old man “sat in the shadow the leaves of the tree made against the electric light”, implied that he tried to alienate himself from the others and choose uncommon place. There were a lot of empty table that had the light, but he chooses the darkest one just like what happened in his old life (Hemmingway 231).

Somehow, the Old man in “Clean, Well lighted place” story choose the uncommon place also at the uncommon time. He prefers to come to the bar very late in the time every customer in that bar was going home. This setting, which is setting of time, also indicates the harmony with the character. On the occasion of narrator told that dew settled the dusty street because the night, it seems rather the old man did the same thing with the night (Hemmingway 231). The old man was trying to cover the truth that he becomes a nasty, lonely and deaf old man by the time just in the nature of the night cover the dusty street with its dew.

A paradox thing which become the second pattern in these two short stories was happened in Hemingway’s “Old Man at the Bridge’’ when “I” as the narrator in Hemingway’s “Old Man at the Bridge’’ told to the Old Man that bridge is not a good place to stop. (Hemmingway 61). But, actually the narrator also stayed in that place, even worse than the Old Man, because he stayed at the bridge not based on his desire. He had to stay at the bridge, a nowhere place, because it was his duty as a soldier to watch and secure the bridge. Actually similar with the Old Man, as a soldier, he had to do his duty even his duty was contradicted with his “truly” politics or his conscience. At least, The Narrator as the soldier also “lost”, just like the Old Man did, because the politics he has was not selected by him but by his military alliance and his duty as a soldier.

This paradoxical pattern also used in Hemmingway “Clean, Well – Lighted place” in a moment when a young waiters in a bar criticize the Old Man’s bad habit. Stayed in the bar in the sleeping time. When the other people stayed at home with their family. The young waiters feels so compassion but also feels so fed-up to the Old Man. The older waiters told to the younger waiters that he, the young waiters, had an ideal life. He is still young, had a job and also family. But actually, the young waiters has the same condition with the Old Man, the person that he hate and he grade as an old man who has a lonely and bad life. The young waiters also stayed up late in the bar, just like the old man though with another reason. Even, the young waiters had a worse life if we compare objectively with the Old Man because, the Old Man stayed up late in the bar with his will and felt so enjoyed and happy to stayed up there, while the young waiters had to stayed up there because it was his job and he did it forcedly.


Works Cited


Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The        

Finca Vigia Edition. New York : Scribner, 1987.

A kind of autobiography.

As an innominate legend, it is a usual condition if all of you, the anonymous reader, don’t know who I am or even just to hear my name before. Rather, it is not important at all to know who I am. I am just another normally person who sleep at night and wake up because light. The exception is if the person, an innominate legend, becomes a legend from the unknown list. It’s rather important for you, the reader, to know me. It’s some advantage for you who read this autobiography or a kind of it. You know the ‘’legend’‘ before that ”legend“ becomes a true legend.

My name is Riva Perdana Sidi. I live in Bandung, Indonesia. I was born at September 14th 1996. I am eighteen years old. I have interest for music and football and just don’t ask me my idea, please. But well, if you require me to answer that question, I will answer it. I just want to be a person that however, his presence can affect the world he lives on even just a little bit.

It’s been two paragraphs only I wrote. Well, now I am getting tired to pretend that I am a professional novelist, writer or a kind of it but from now, I will have some more respectful about their job. What a tiredly job.